Series and Parallel Hybrid Vehicles
In hybrid cars, the systems can be configured either in series or in parallel, depending on how the combination of the internal combustion engine and electric motor is set up.
In series hybrid cars, the internal combustion engine is used to generate electricity that powers an electric motor, which in turn provides propulsion to the wheels. The internal combustion engine is not directly connected to the wheels, so it doesn’t provide mechanical traction. Its primary function is to generate electrical energy to power the electric motor.
In parallel hybrid cars both the internal combustion engine and the electric motor provide traction to the wheels. These two engines are mechanically connected and can work together or independently, depending on the driving needs. Generally, when the car is started or traveling at low speeds, the electric motor is used as the primary source of propulsion. When more power is required or when the battery is running low, the internal combustion engine kicks in to provide mechanical energy to the wheels. During acceleration or situations where more power is needed, both the internal combustion engine and the electric motor can work together. During deceleration or braking, kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy and stored in the battery for later use.